- in connection with academic writing
Some facts about copyright
Copyright gives the creator of a creative work - an intellectual property - the exclusive rights to produce copies of this work and to make it publicly available by dissemination, presentation and performance. This right is valid from the moment the work is created and comprises the design of the work, not its ideas or the knowledge it contains.
To balance this right against the public need for information the law of intellectual property sets down a number of restrictions to these exclusive rights.
The right to copy
An example of such copyright restrictions concerns copying written texts to a certain extent for use in education and research. How much can be copied is regulated by the organisation Kopinor. Further copying requires the permission of the person or persons who possess the exclusive rights.
The right to quote
A further restriction to the owner's exclusive rights is the right of users to quote from the work. A quotation is a limited extract from a work that you may use in your own paper. You may quote freely as long as you refer to the author and the work, and as long as you do not misquote. How to give references is further detailed on the library homepage under Referencing.
Other sources than written texts - for example photos
It may sometimes be relevant to use other types of sources than written text. Brief extracts from musical works or radio and TV programmes can be included in accordance with the right of quotation. Figures, photos and other works of art must however as a rule be included in their entirety so as not to reduce the character of the work. Hence permission must be asked.
However, The University College of Østfold has signed an agreement with BONO. This agreement allows students to use photos in their papers without asking for permission, as long as the artist is a member of BONO. Search the BONO database of artists.
You must also ask for permission to use computer software unless it is licensed for free use. Still, you must refer to your sources.
Some publications are called free material. They can be copied and used without asking for permission. They comprise:
• Legislation and publications meant for public use
• Works by copyright owners who have been dead for 70 years or more (term of protection)
You should remember that a translation is also a work of art subject to copyright protection even if the term of protection has expired for the original work.
More information about copyright: